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This week’s blog is a comprehensive example explaining how to transition from current GAAP to the new lease accounting standards. We will be using a real life scenario that one of our clients graciously allowed us to use as an example. We have a lot to cover, so let’s get right to it.
Assume a Tenant signs a lease document with the following predicates:
Lease Term: A term commencing on April 1, 2016 (Commencement Date) and continuing for one-hundred-twenty (120) full calendar months. Tenant shall be granted access to the Premises sixty (60) days prior to the Commencement Date to install equipment and furnishings (the “Early Access Period”). Such access shall be subject to all the terms and conditions of this Lease, except that the Commencement Date and the payment of Rent shall not be triggered thereby.
TI Allowance: The tenant received a Tenant Improvement Allowance of $1.2 Million as an incentive to sign the lease from the landlord. The landlord paid the contractor directly for the construction of the Improvements. The improvements were constructed prior to the Early Access Period.
Moving Expenses: The tenant also received a reimbursement of $30,000 in moving expenses from the landlord.
Base Rent: Per the lease document, the rent commencement date is 3 full calendar months after the tenant opens for business at that location. Base rent is $205,000/month; with annual increases on the anniversary of the rent commencement date of 3%.
Assumptions: Assume that the lease is classified as an operating lease, assume that the tenant is a public company, assume that the rate inherent in the lease is unknown, and the fair value of the building is $300 Million. Assume the Tenant opened for business at the location on June 1, 2016. Assume that if the company tried to borrow $300 Million (to purchase the building) its borrowing rate would be 9% in 2019, but if the company tried to borrow $27 Million (the amount of the total lease payments) its borrowing rate would be 6% in 2019.
Here are the steps to take to transition from Current GAAP to the new lease accounting standards issued by the FASB:
Step 1: Determine the lease term under current GAAP.
The lease term stated in the contract is 66 months, however the document states that the tenant shall be granted access subject to all the terms and conditions in the lease document during the “Early Access” period. Assuming the early access period started on February 1, 2016, then for GAAP purposes the lease really started on that date, and the lease term is actually 122 months; from February 1, 2016 through March 31, 2026. Note: to understand the difference between the commencement date, execution date, possession dates, etc, read this article.
Step 2: Determine the total lease payments under GAAP.
The rent commencement date is September 1, 2016 (3 months from the date the tenant opened for business). The total lease payments are $26,863,751 See image below.
Step 3: Prepare the Straight-line amortization schedule under current GAAP.
The lease term is 122 months (from Step 1), total rent is $$26,863,751 (from step 2). Monthly rent expense from base rent is therefore $220,194.68. Note however, that there is a total Incentive of $1,230,000 ($1.2 million in TI Allowances and $30,000 in moving expenses). These incentives have to be amortized over the lease term as well, which results in a monthly credit to rent expense of $10,081.97. Note: To understand the accounting for tenant improvement allowances under current GAAP, click here. As a result of the incentive adjustment, total rent expense on the income statement is $210,112.71. Please see below for an illustration of the straight-line amortization schedule, note that this is a screen shot directly from our Lease management software. Note that the tenant will use this amortization schedule to make entries through the effective date of the new lease accounting rules.
Step 4: On the effective date, determine the total payments over the remaining lease term under the new lease accounting standard.
Under FASB’s new lease accounting standard, the effective date for public companies is January 2019, and the remaining lease term starts from the earliest comparative period presented. Public companies issue 3 income statements and 3 cash flow statements, as such the earliest comparative period presented would commence on January 1, 2017. The total remaining payments from January 1 2017 through March 31, 2026 is $26,043,751.
Step 5: Calculate the present value of the remaining lease payments (the lease liability).
Under the FASB’s new lease accounting standard, the company would need to calculate the present value of the remaining lease payments from the earliest comparative period presented. The FASB says to use the rate inherent in the lease, however that rate is practically impossible for the tenant to determine. The FASB says if that rate is not determinable, then use the tenant’s borrowing rate. Well, what borrowing rate should you use? Do you use the rate as of 2017 or 2019? In this scenario, you would use the borrowing rate as of 2019. This brings us to a very important distinction between current GAAP and the new lease accounting standards. Under current GAAP, companies would use the rate at which it could obtain the funds to purchase the entire leased asset. Under the new standards, companies would use the rate at which it could obtain funds to pay for the lease payments over the lease term. These amounts could be very different (the funds to purchase the leased asset are usually much more than the payments over the lease term, especially for real estate leases).
Note: to see other significant differences between current GAAP and the proposed lease accounting standard, click here.
In this example then, the interest rate used would be 6%, and the present value of the minimum lease payments would be $ 19,797,618. This is the lease liability as of January 1, 2017.
Note: to learn how to use excel to calculate the present value of lease payments, click here.
At this point we want to make a VERY IMPORTANT POINT: The number calculated above (19,797,618) is based on excel. If you are recalculating this example using lease software and you get that exact number above (payments are made in advance), then we hate to tell you this, but your lease software is not entirely accurate. This is because it is assuming that there is no interest paid in the first month of the lease. It means your software is still using excel in the background to make the calculation, which is not a good thing. Why? Well the number you get should actually be slightly lower than the number above, once again because of interest paid in the first month. When added together over multiple leases, this difference could be significant. You could be adding a MUCH larger liability on your balance sheet if your software is calculating the liability this way. Obviously, LeaseQuery calculates this amount very accurately. Once again, keep this in mind as you evaluate software.
Step 6: Calculate the Right of Use (ROU) Asset.
Per FASB’s lease accounting standard, the ROU asset is the liability calculated in Step 5 above, adjusted by deferred rent and lease incentives. In this example, it is the liability of 19,797,618, less the deferred rent balance as of December 2016, less the unamortized incentive balance as of December 2016. So the formula for the ROU asset is 19,797,618 minus 1,602,141 (Deferred rent as of December 2016 – See Step 3 Image) minus 1,119,098 (Unamortized Incentives as of December 2016 – See Step 3 Image). This gives us a total ROU asset of 17,076,379. So if this were a journal entry, it would look like this:
Dr ROU Asset 17,076,379
Dr Deferred Rent 1,602,141
Dr Lease Incentive 1,119,098
Cr Lease Liability 19,797,618
There you have it. That is a comprehensive example showing how to transition from current to the new lease accounting rules.
As always, we write detailed blogs like this to demonstrate that our experts at LeaseQuery are not just real estate professionals, but also lease accounting experts. Trust us, there’s a difference. We understand the challenges faced not just by real estate and equipment leasing professionals, but also the accounting departments supporting both groups. Our lease management software reflects our expertise.
If you liked this post, consider reading the following:
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About LeaseQuery: LeaseQuery is lease management software that helps companies manage their leases. Rather than relying on excel spreadsheets, our clients use LeaseQuery to get alerts for critical dates (renewals, etc), calculate the straight-line amortization of rent and TI allowances per GAAP, provide the required monthly journal entries (for both capital and operating leases) and provide the commitment disclosure reports required in the notes and the MD&A. Contact us here.
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