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As if one negotiation is not enough, we in the commercial real estate profession insist upon three separate negotiations for every deal. Why you may ask? Let me spend a moment and give you my take.
Negotiation One – The proposal. Once upon a time and not too long ago, a buyer’s expression of interest to buy a property from a seller took the form of a binding offer – the deposit receipt and escrow instructions. Outlined were the price, escrow period, loan amounts, representations and warranties requested of the seller, and a period for due diligence and closing. The buyer signed the offer, deposited a good faith deposit with the broker and hoped his representative could convince the seller to make a deal under acceptable terms and conditions. Created, were all sorts of problems with this structure. Few buyers took the time to review the document they were signing. Misunderstandings occurred. Buyers changed their minds. Sellers decided not to sell. The impact of the sale weren’t properly vetted. Buyers made commitments to move which backfired when the deals were not closed. Litigation ensued. Quite a mess. What evolved was the non binding letter of intent. Most negotiations now originate with such a letter.
Negotiation Two – The purchase and sale agreement. Because the first negotiation is via a non-binding letter, the agreed upon terms and conditions – such as the price – must be placed in a document that will commit the parties to accomplish certain things – such as opening an escrow, notarizing grant deeds, delivering clear title to the property, representing the seller is authorized to sell, etc. Ample time is given to the buyer and seller to comment on the specific language of the agreement and request changes – another negotiation. Once the binding purchase and sale agreement is signed by the buyer and seller, a period of buyer due diligence commences. During this period of time, the buyer arranges financing, checks out the physical aspects of the building – roof, fire suppression system, plumbing, electrical, heating and air conditioning, reviews the title to make sure no matters are looming, checks out the condition of the soil for potential environmental contamination, and visits with the city to insure the buyer’s proposed use for the building is allowed – quite a bit to accomplish in a 30-45 day period.
Negotiation Three – The end of due diligence. Presumably, the buyer has completed all of their inspections, the lender has approved the loan, title is clean and ready to be transferred and the deal can safely move toward closing – ooops, not so fast. Invariably, something is uncovered in the due diligence period that surprises the buyer and causes another round of negotiations. These surprises can be as simple as a roof repair and as complex as an environmental clean-up. Sometimes, the issues can be fixed with a dollar credit from the seller to the buyer. However, sometimes the problems are more systemic and can result in a cancelled transaction.